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Water Quality

Technical Publications Concerning Aquatic Plant Management


Introduction

The Aquatic Plant Management Program, administered by the Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, was established to investigate and attempt to relieve nuisance conditions caused by the proliferation of aquatic vegetation. The main environmental concern has been the introduced plant, Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), although attention has been given to other native plants which may cause more localized problems, and to other exotics which could be introduced to British Columbia.

Considerable research has been performed by the Ministry on aquatic plant distribution, ecology and growth in British Columbia and many options for aquatic plant management have been investigated. The publications listed in this document include reports and bulletins prepared by the Ministry since 1972 on a broad range of topics including the following areas:

  1. collection of baseline information on aquatic plant distribution and ecology,
  2. research on growth, reproduction and environmental requirements of Eurasian watermilfoil in a wide range of natural habitats,
  3. assessment of methods to restrict the spread of Eurasian watermilfoil, and
  4. field testing, monitoring and further development of recognized treatment techniques for control of Eurasian watermilfoil and other nuisance aquatic plants. Numerous mechanical, chemical and biological control methods have been considered.

A short description follows some publication titles giving contents and availability. As several of the more recent reports supersede older reports, the latter may not be available for general distribution. Because the numbers of technical reports published are limited, it is impossible to provide all interested parties with copies; the Information Bulletins have been designed for general public information.


Notes:

Reports marked with an asterisk (*) have been distributed to Technical Libraries only. These reports are available on loan only, due to limited resources.

Reports marked with a plus (+) are complete, but supplies are too limited to permit distribution at this time; copies are available on special loan only.

This is not a complete list of the available aquatic plant papers and reports. This list contains those reports that are only available in paper form. The remaining reports, in PDF format, are on this website


Reports

This paper provides a short summary of investigations of nuisance aquatic weeds, with emphasis on Eurasian watermilfoil, in the Okanagan Basin during 1971 to 1974. Available on loan.
This report summarizes results, advantages and disadvantages of several mechanical and chemical methods for control of Eurasian watermilfoil tested by the Water Investigations Branch. These methods are described in more detail in subsequent reports. Available on loan.
This paper outlines the various control technologies used in the Okanagan Valley and compares cost, advantages and disadvantages. It has been largely replaced by Information Bulletin Volume IV.
This report briefly reviews the role of the Ministry of Environment in relation to the Eurasian watermilfoil problem in B.C. and defines 10 A.P.M.P. objectives for 1979 based on the experiences and efforts made between 1972 and 1978. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This publication outlines the objectives for 1980 of the Ministry of Environment in dealing with the problem of Eurasian watermilfoil. It includes Information Bulletin Volume IX: Summary of Aquatic Plant Management Program Results for 1979, and the Seventh Interim Report of the Advisory Committee on the Control of Eurasian Water Milfoil in the Okanagan Lake System of British Columbia. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report provides important background information on Eurasian watermilfoil and its potential economic and ecological impact on the Okanagan Valley mainstem lakes. A good summary is provided on advantages and disadvantages of various weed control technologies. Limited copies available for distribution.
This paper describes the major elements of the B.C. Aquatic Plant Management Program and provides a historical review of activities from 1972 up to 1978. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report describes field tests of burlap bottom barriers, summarizing installation procedures, costs and observations of effectiveness over a two year period.
This paper summarizes various aquatic plant control methods and their effectiveness in B.C. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This note introduces the chironomid species observed to feed on Eurasian watermilfoil with particular reference to the damage caused by a newly reported species associated with a reduction in surfacing plants in some locations in Okanagan Lake.
This report includes a short literature review on crayfish as potential weed control agents, laboratory observations on feeding, hatching and behavior of native crayfish collected near Victoria, B.C. and proposals for field trials. Information Bulletin Volume VI gives an updated summary of the subject. Available on loan.
This report was prepared by the Fish and Wildlife Branch through funding from the Littoral Studies Section, Aquatic Studies Branch, to assess the effect of Eurasian watermilfoil on fish and waterfowl. Available on loan.
This report was prepared by the Fish and Wildlife Branch to complete 1977 field studies to examine the impact of Eurasian watermilfoil treatments with 2,4-D on fish and waterfowl in the Okanagan Valley. Funding for this project was provided in 1977 and 1978 by the Inventory and Engineering Branch. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report was prepared by the Fish and Wildlife Branch to complete their 1978 studies on the impact of Eurasian watermilfoil on fish and waterfowl and the impact of 2,4-D treatments on fish and waterfowl in the Okanagan Valley with concluding remarks covering 1977 and 1978 data. Available on loan.
Information was reviewed by E.J. Bowmer, M.D. on five topics including dioxin contamination of 2,4-D, the position of health authorities on 2,4-D use, the position of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, health hazards of 2,4-D use reported by the Department of Health Services, State of California and reported by Ruth Shearer for METRO, Seattle. This information was disassembled and discussed with reference to the health hazard from use of 2,4-D for aquatic weed control in British Columbia.
This report discusses the relationships between lake sediment and nutrition of aquatic plants and the methods of measuring the nutrients in lake sediments. Additional research is described in a subsequent report (Kangasiemi, 1978) on the subject. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This publication was prepared for presentation at the 29th Annual Meeting of the Canada Weed Committee (Western Section), Dec. 2-4, 1975. It outlines the spread of Eurasian watermilfoil, its biological characteristics, and management options in the Okanagan Basin. Limited copies available for distribution.
Details of the natural history of several insects are presented and their potential as biological control agents is discussed.
This report reviews the 1977 Aquatic Plant Management Program in the Okanagan Basin Lakes and outlines management options together with the priorities for implementation of weed removal activities. This report is specific to the 1978 Okanagan Basin program and hence of limited general use. Limited copies available for distribution.
This publication provides a good summary of 1971-1972 literature on aquatic plant ecology. It contains a small section on weed control methods reviewed in more detail in subsequent reports. Available on loan.
This report documents the detailed field studies and observations of aquatic plants in Lake Windermere in relation to physical and chemical parameters in 1971 and 1972. No evidence was obtained to suggest significant changes in weed distribution between 1951-1971 nor relations between any eutrophication and weed infestations. Eurasian watermilfoil was not the nuisance species. Available on loan.
This report summarizes observations on native populations of aquatic plants in Kalamalka Lake in 1972. Available on loan.
This report provides a good background on aspects of the ecology and control of aquatic plants and on various herbicides, including 2,4-D. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report combines a literature review of mechanical harvesting with observations on the experimental trials with aquatic weed harvesters in Okanagan Lake in 1972-1973. Information Bulletin Volume IV reviews more recent information. Available on loan.
This report reviews field studies on the distribution of Eurasian watermilfoil in the Okanagan Valley mainstem lakes in 1975. The information is summarized in a subsequent report which became the baseline for quantitative evaluations of the expansion of Eurasian watermilfoil (Hepburn, 1979). Available on loan.
This report examines the effectiveness and environmental consequences of an experimental "Mud Cat" hydraulic dredging project in Okanagan and Kalamalka lakes in 1975. Included is a lengthy discussion of the significance of water quality parameter measurements. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report describes the results of the use of diquat and paraquat in field trials in Okanagan Lake. Limited copies available for distribution.
This publication describes the results of field trials with 2,4-D in 1976. Considerably more information on 2,4-D is contained in Anon., 1980. Limited copies available for distribution.
This report presents monitoring data collected in conjunction with nine full-scale 2,4-D field trials conducted in 1977 and 1978 in Okanagan Valley lakes, under a variety of conditions. Data are presented on 2,4-D residue persistence and drift within the aquatic environment (water, biological tissues and hydrosoils) and effects on water quality. Limited copies are available for distribution.
The efficacy of granular 2,4-D on Eurasian watermilfoil is discussed, based on a simple experiment using two plexiglass cylinders to contain M. spicatum plants and sediments taken from Okanagan lake. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report evaluates the benefits of bottom barriers (polyethylene and hypalon) for the control of Eurasian watermilfoil, based upon trials conducted by the Water Investigations Branch and the Okanagan Basin Water Board between summer of 1975 and the fall of 1976. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report gives results on 1978 air photography interpretation and field surveys that were initiated in order to document the location, area, density and distribution of Eurasian watermilfoil and other aquatic macrophytes in the Okanagan Basin lakes. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report summarizes the 1978 field survey of locations and extent of infestations of Eurasian watermilfoil and other aquatic macrophytes in the Okanagan Basin. Comparison is made with surveys in previous years. Limited copies are available for distribution.
Immediate and long-term effectiveness of the Aquatic Plant Management Program rotavating and SCUBA diver-operated suction dredging operations for control of Eurasian watermilfoil in the Okanagan Lakes in 1977 are reported. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report provides a summary of 1978 field survey activities that determined the location and extent of Myriophyllum species and other aquatic macrophytes in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This publication reports on the results of an experimental Quarantine Project that occurred in the summer of 1978 in order to assess the role that recreational boat traffic plays in the spread of Eurasian watermilfoil from infested to non-infested locations in British Columbia. Limited copies are available for distribution.
Volume 1: Description of study area, treatment methods and herbicide residue persistence in the water column and water quality implications. Inventory and Engineering Branch Report No. 2913, British Columbia Ministry of Environment. 142 pp.
2,4-D residue longevity and water quality are discussed in these results of the 1977-1978 field trials in Okanagan Valley mainstem lakes with granular 2,4-D, with particular attention given to residue drift in the water column. Limited copies are available for distribution.
Volume 2: Herbicide residue concentrations and persistence in biological tissues and hydrosoils. Inventory and Engineering Branch Report No. 2914, British Columbia Ministry of Environment. 72 pp.
This report looks at 2,4-D residue persistence in hydrosoils, fresh water clam tissue and plant tissue samples collected from 2,4-D field trials conducted in Okanagan Valley mainstem lakes in 1977 and 1978. Limited copies are available for distribution.
Volume 3: Herbicide application effects and efficacy on target plant species. Inventory and Engineering Branch Report No. 2915, British Columbia Ministry of Environment. 69 pp.
This report deals with density reduction of target and non-target plant species and species diversity after 2,4-D application in 1977 and 1978 field trials conducted in Okanagan Valley mainstem lakes. Limited copies are available for distribution.
Extensive trials of harvesters, barge-mounted rototillers and diver operated dredges are summarized in this report of the 1977-1978 Eurasian watermilfoil control activities in the mainstem Okanagan lakes. Included are detailed technical decriptions of equipment used during 1977 and 1978 for Eurasian water milfoil control. Available on loan.
Reports on the first year's operations of an experimental network of roadside inspection stations to reduce the inter-lake transport of Eurasian watermilfoil by boating traffic. Limited copies are available for distribution.
Results of monitoring residues in water and hydrosoils following 2,4-D treatments in Wood and Kalamalka Lakes are presented with descriptions of methods and sampling areas. Available on loan.
This report summarizes the 1979 field survey of location and extent of infestations of Eurasian watermilfoil and other aquatic macrophytes in the Okanagan Basin. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report discusses nutrient concentrations of Okanagan Lake interstitial water and suggests that lake sediments may be a major source of nutrients for Myriophyllum spicatum in Okanagan Lake. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report assesses the environmental benefits and hazards of trial herbicidal treatments (using Diquat, Paraquat, and Casoron) on Eurasian watermilfoil populations in the Okanagan Basin in summer, 1974. Available on loan.
This report reviews the location, construction, limitations, and effectiveness of weed fragment barriers in the Okanagan Basin during the 1976- 1979 period. Limited copies are available for distribution.
Results of the operation of seven roadside inspection stations are summarized in this report. Data are presented on the effectiveness of the inspection stations in preventing spread of Eurasian watermilfoil by boaters, and for use as public information outlets. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report describes 1980 herbicide applications, using 2,4-D butoxyethanol ester, to treat nuisance populations of Eurasian water milfoil in Kalamalka and Wood Lakes, B.C. Data are presented on the results of 2,4-D residue analyses to determine herbicide persistence and drift in water. Limited copies are available for distribution.
This report reviews hydraulic jetting and rototilling of sediments in Okanagan and Kalamalka Lakes as technologies to assist in the control of Eurasian watermilfoil in British Columbia. Limited copies available for distribution.
Results of the operation of three roadside inspection stations are summarized and effectiveness in preventing spread of Eurasian watermilfoil is discussed. Limited copies are available for distribution.
2,4-D adsorption to sediment was examined and groundwater flow was sampled to determine the potential for 2,4-D movement from Wood Lake into wells near the lakeshore. Available on loan.
This report presents legal considerations, provincial involvement in permit requests and applications and information on herbicide drift, persistence and effectiveness from observations over eight years.
This report documents qualitative observations on the effectiveness of 2,4-D treatments and the drift and persistence of herbicide following applications in Kalamalaka and Wood Lakes in 1979 and 1980. Note that this report combines data on 1979 and 1980 treatments which were to have been published in Part XXX, Volume II and Part XXXI, Volume II.
Several factors affecting seed viability of Myriophyllum spicatum L. were assessed including cold storage, freezing storage, germination under light and dark conditions, germination of single seeds and nutlets and germination relative to seed position on each fruiting spike. In addition, seeds were collected at different times in the growing season to assess the effect of field maturation on seed viability.
This report reviews control activities (undertaken between Sept. 1, 1982 and Aug. 31, 1983) which treated about 165 ha of Eurasian watermilfoil by harvesting, cultivating, rotavating and use of bottom barriers.
This publication presents a review of research on the biology of M. spicatum in Canada. The plant's history, geographic distribution, economic importance, and ecology are discussed. Distinguishing characteristics of the species and a list of control technologies are offered. Available on loan.

Information Bulletins

 


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Last updated: September 18, 2001